Hardware cloth is galvanized steel wire cloth, galvanized after weaving. It can be used for sand screens, sieves, guards for factory school or church windows. Covering ventilators. Ash sifters. Chicken coops. Tree guards and animal cages. Fruit drying.
The deposit of metal at the intersection prevents the wires moving and makes a smooth joint. The mesh and wire cloth is a number of squares to the inch. 4 x 4 mesh has four squares to an inch in either direction.